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Clinical Study References
Claims on Packaging:
- May Soothe Occasional Morning Sickness Nausea. (See references below: 1-3)
- Justification on back of packaging: Scientific evidence suggests Vitamin B6 may help soothe occasional bouts of nausea.
Claims on Website:
- Reduce the Risk of Birth Defects. (See reference below: 4)
- Justification: Folic acid is a B vitamin that helps prevent complications of the brain and spinal cord called neural tube defects.
- Support Healthy Growth, Brain Development, and Full Term Carrying (see references below: 5-9)
- Justification: Adequate DHA consumption has been shown in scientific studies to greatly support healthy gestation and to increase the likelihood of a normal or full-term birth.
- DHA is also important for fetal development, proper brain and eye growth, and learning and behavioral function.
- Davis M. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: an evidence-based review. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2004;18(4): 312-328.
- American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology) Practice Bulletin: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(4):803-814.
- Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Wongtra-ngan, Supreeya; Ruangsri, Rung-aroon. “Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Vol 173, Issue 3, Part 1. Sept 1995.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Office on Women’s Health. Frequently asked questions: folic acid. May 2010.
- Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord. 2002;69(1-3):15-29.
- Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(3):469-479.
- Harris WS. Fish oil supplementation: evidence for health benefits. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71:208-221.
- US Food and Drug Administration Agency Response Letter GRAS No. GRN000041 [May 17, 2001]. http://1.usa.gov/VQtSZN. Accessed October 4, 2012.
- Hornstra G. Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5)(suppl):1262S-1269S.
- S. J. Petre, D. K. Sackett, D. D. Aday. Do national advisories serve local consumers: An assessment of mercury in economically important North Carolina fish. J. Environ. Monit. 2012 14(5):1410 - 1416.
- P. Grandjean, J. E. Henriksen, A. L. Choi, M. S. Petersen, C. Dalgaard, F. Nielsen, P. Weihe. Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiology 2011 22(3):410 - 417.
- D.-H. Lee, I.-K. Lee, K. Song, M. Steffes, W. Toscano, B. A. Baker, D. R. Jacobs Jr. A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: Results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 2006 29(7):1638 - 1644.
- A. Wallin, D. Di Giuseppe, N. Orsini, P. S. Patel, N. G. Forouhi, A. Wolk. Fish consumption, dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and risk of type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 2012 35(4):918 - 929.
- R. F. White, C. L. Palumbo, D. A. Yurgelun-Todd, K. J. Heaton, P. Weihe, F. Debes, P. Grandjean. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 2011 32(6):975 - 980.
- M. J. Zeilmaker, J. Hoekstra, J. C. H. van Eijkeren, N. de Jong, A. Hart, M. Kennedy, H. Owen, H. Gunnlaugsdottir. Fish consumption during child bearing age: a quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 54:30-34.
- D. A. Axelrad, D. C. Bellinger, L. M. Ryan, T. J. Woodruff. Dose-response relationship of prenatal mercury exposure and IQ: An integrative analysis of epidemiologic data. Environ. Health Perspect. 2007 115(4):609 - 615.
- E. Oken, A. L. Choi, M. R. Karagas, K. Mariën, C. M. Rheinberger, R. Schoeny, E. Sunderland, S. Korrick. Which fish should I eat? Perspectives influencing fish consumption choices. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012 120(6):790 - 798.
- I. B. Cace, A. Milardovic, I. Prpic, R. Krajina, O. Petrovic, P. Vukelic, Z. Spiric, M. Horvat, D. Mazej, J. Snoj. Relationship between the prenatal exposure to low-level of mercury and the size of a newborn's cerebellum. Med. Hypotheses 2011 76(4):514 - 516.
- M. R. Karagas, A. L. Choi, E. Oken, M. Horvat, R. Schoeny, E. Kamai, W. Cowell, P. Grandjean, S. Korrick. Evidence on the human health effects of low-level methylmercury exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012 120(6):799 - 806.
- J. J. Strain, P. W. Davidson, M. P. Bonham, E. M. Duffy, A. Stokes-Riner, S. W. Thurston, J. M. W. Wallace, P. J. Robson, C. F. Shamlaye, L. A. Georger, J. Sloane-Reeves, E. Cernichiari, R. L. Canfield, C. Cox, L. S. Huang, J. Janciuras, G. J. Myers, T. W. Clarkson. Associations of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Neurotoxicology 2008 29(5):776 - 782.
- A. M. Lando, Y. Zhang. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States. Environ. Res. 2011 111(3):442 - 450.
- P. A. Olsvik, H. Amlund, B. E. Torstensen. Dietary lipids modulate methylmercury toxicity in Atlantic salmon. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2011 49(12):3258 - 3271.
- S. D. Stellman, T. Takezaki, L. Wang, Y. Chen, M. L. Citron, M. V. Djordjevic, S. Harlap, J. E. Muscat, A. I. Neugut, E. L. Wynder, H. Ogawa, K. Tajima, K. Aoki. Smoking and lung cancer risk in American and Japanese men: An international case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2001 10(11):1193 - 1199.
- M. Porta. Persistent organic pollutants and the burden of diabetes. Lancet 2006 368(9535):558-559.
- B. Choi, L. Lapham, L. Amin-Zaki, T. Saleem. Abnormal neuronal migration, deranged cerebral cortical organization, and diffuse white matter astrocytosis of human fetal brain: a major effect of methylmercury poisoning in utero. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1978 37(6):719-733.
- S. B. Elhassani. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1982 19(8):875 - 906.
- K. Yaginuma-Sakurai, K. Murata, M. Iwai-Shimada, K. Nakai, N. Kurokawa, N. Tatsuta, H. Satoh. Hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of mercury: Experimental study of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in humans. J Toxicol Sci 2012 37(1):123 - 130.
- D. McAlpine, S. Araki. Minamata disease: An unusual neurological disorder caused by contaminated fish. Lancet 1958 2(7047):629 - 631.
- L Trasande, Y Lui. Reducing the staggering costs of environmental disease in children, estimated at $76.6 billion in 2008. Health Aff 2011 30(5): 863-870.
- J. Julvez, F. Debes, P. Weihe, A .Choi, P. Grandjean. Sensitivity of continuous performance test (CPT) at age 14 years to developmental methylmercury exposure. Neurotoxicol Teritol 2010 32(6): 627-32.